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What is the buyback of shares?

Buyback means that a company repurchases its shares it's called a buyback. It is also known as the buyback of shares and stock buyback. After repurchasing shares company should cancel this because a company can't buy its own shares for the purpose of investment.

Reasons For Buyback Of Shares

When a company sells its share so why do they want to repurchase, so for this there are many reasons for share buyback.

Undervalued Shares

This is the main reason to repurchase shares when a company sees that its company shares are undervalued, so that company buys its own shares. Because of this company shares reduce in the market and price rises day by day.

Lots Of Cash But Not Many Products Opportunities

This is the second main reason for buyback of shares, that company has lots of cash or cash in the bank account is very expensive so for this company repurchase its own shares, and use its cash to give rewards of its shareholder.

Improve Valuation Of Companies

Buyback and repurchase improve company EPS and ROE. when EPS goes up, the stock price is also going up. So that why a company buyback its share because of this stocks and share reduce in the market and values of the shares goes up.

4. A company can buy back no more than 25% of its paid-up equity capital in any financial year.
5. Debt-equity ratio should not fall below 2:1 after buy-back.
6. The shares and the specified securities should be fully paid up.
7. Company must follow the SEBI guidelines in case of listed shares and prescribed
guidelines in the case of others.
8. Only one buy-back in a year is allowed.
9. Shares must be physically destroyed within 7 days of completion of buy-back.
10. No fresh issue is allowed within 6 months from buy-back, except by way of issue of
bonus shares, ESOPs, sweat equity, and conversion of debt/preference shares into equity.

SEBI GUIDELINES FOR BUYBACK

Buyback of shares in India is a relatively new concept that has started to gain popularity in recent years. The buyback of shares is regulated by SEBI (Buyback of Securities) Regulations 1998, which lays out the guidelines for the buyback process. These regulations were recently replaced by SEBI (Buyback of Securities) Regulations, 2018.
In this article, we will discuss the meaning of buyback of shares, reasons for buybacks, methods of buybacks, benefits of buybacks, and more.

1. Buyback of shares must be authorized by its articles
2. A special resolution passed at a general meeting is needed to authorize buy-back. However,
The board of directors may authorize the company to buy back up to 10% of the total paid-up equity capital and free reserves (only one such buy-back can be done in a year) by passing a resolution at its meeting.
3. The maximum amount of buy-back should not exceed 25% of the company's total paid-up capital and free reserves.

ADVANTAGES OF SHARE BUYBACK 

  • Repurchase increases the share value in the market.
  • The company gives a return of surplus of shares to shareholders.
  • Shares buyback improves company earning per value, return on equity, and price earning ratio, etc.
  • It helps the company to unfriendly takeovers from other companies.
  • Because of repurchase company utilize its sum of the free reserve.
  • share buyback helps the company to tax savings.

DISADVANTAGES OF BUYBACK

  • Sometimes share buyback puts companies at a risk.
  • It might disadvantage when the company pays too much for its own shares.
  • Sometimes buyback gives negative signals to investors.
  • buyback reduces cash surplus with the company.
  • After this, for further expansion no scope.
  • Many times shareholders do not like buyback or repurchase.

 

METHOD OF BUYBACK

There are three main methods of buy back shares.

BUYBACK THROUGH OPEN MARKET

In this method of share buyback, the company buys its own stocks from the market. This transaction happens through the company’s brokers. This repurchase program happens for an extended period of time as a large block of shares needs to be bought. The company is under no obligation to conduct the repurchase program after the announcement.

BUYBACK THROUGH TENDER OFFER

A tender offer is when a company buys back its shares from existing shareholders at a fixed price, on a proportionate basis, within a set period of time. The company will issue a letter of offer and tender form to all eligible shareholders who are registered on the company records.

ODD-LOT HOLDERS

With buybacks from odd-lot holders, the company purchases shares directly from the shareholders who own odd lots - which is less common in India. An odd lot holder is a shareholder who owns shares that are fewer than the specified marketable lots as set by the stock exchange.

IMPACT OF SHARE BUYBACK

  • Share buyback generally has positive impacts on a company’s finances and other things.
  • Because of buyback share prices increase.
  • The total number of shares outstanding reduces in the market and the earnings per share increase with the buyback of shares. 
  •  The buyback also positive impact on investors’ portfolios.
  • Because of buyback, the company’s key financial ratio also improves.
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