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Valuation Techniques

True Worth of a Company?

True Worth of a Company

Valuing a company is both an art and a science. Investors around the world use various valuation techniques to determine the fair price of a company’s stock. In the Indian stock market, these techniques are crucial for making informed investment decisions. 


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    The Basics of Valuation

    The Basics of Valuation

    Before we start, it’s important to grasp two key concepts:

    • Market Capitalization: The total market value of a company’s outstanding shares.
    • Enterprise Value (EV): The total value of a company, including debt and excluding cash.

    Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Analysis

    Discounted Cash Flow

    The Theory Behind DCF

    The DCF analysis is a method used to estimate the value of an investment based on its expected future cash flows. The premise is that a company is worth all of the cash that it could make available to investors in the future. It is the sum of the cash flows, discounted back to their present value.

    Steps to Perform DCF Analysis

    Steps to Perform DCF Analysis

    1. Forecasting Free Cash Flows: Estimate the company’s free cash flows (FCF) for a period of 5-10 years. FCF is the cash a company generates after cash outflows to support operations and maintain its capital assets.

    2. Estimating Terminal Value: After the forecast period, a terminal value is estimated to account for all the cash flows beyond the forecast horizon.

    3. Discounting the Cash Flows: Use the company’s weighted average cost of capital (WACC) to discount all the future cash flows back to their present value.

    4. Summing Up the Present Values: Add up all the discounted cash flows including the terminal value to get the enterprise value.

    Example in Practice

    Imagine a company with a WACC of 10% and expected FCFs for the next five years as follows:

    • Year 1: ₹100 million
    • Year 2: ₹110 million
    • Year 3: ₹121 million
    • Year 4: ₹133.1 million
    • Year 5: ₹146.41 million

    The terminal value at the end of year 5, assuming a perpetual growth rate of 4%, might be calculated as ₹146.41 million / (10% – 4%) = ₹2,440.17 million. Discount these values back to the present value and sum them to get the enterprise value.

    Comparative Company Analysis (CCA)

    Comparative Company Analysis (CCA)

    The Concept of CCA

    CCA involves comparing the company in question to similar companies in the industry based on various financial metrics and ratios. The idea is to evaluate a company’s value relative to its peers.

    Key Ratios in CCA

    Key Ratios in CCA

    • Price to Earnings (P/E) Ratio: This shows how much investors are willing to pay per rupee of earnings.

    • Price to Book (P/B) Ratio: This compares a company’s market value to its book value.

    • EV/EBITDA: This ratio compares the enterprise value of a company to its earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization.

    Applying CCA

    Applying CCA

    1. Select a Peer Group: Choose a group of companies that are similar in size, industry, and financial structure.

    2. Calculate Valuation Multiples: Compute the valuation ratios for each of the peer companies.

    3. Benchmark: Compare the company’s multiples against the peer group to assess whether it is overvalued or undervalued.

    Example in Practice

    If the average P/E ratio of the peer group is 15 and our company’s earnings per share (EPS) is ₹10, the estimated share price would be 15 * ₹10 = ₹150.

    Asset-Based Valuation

    Asset-Based Valuation

    The Premise of Asset-Based Valuation

    This method involves valuing a company based on the net asset value of its total assets minus its liabilities. It’s particularly relevant for holding companies or those with significant tangible assets.

    Steps for Asset-Based Valuation

    Steps for Asset-Based Valuation

    1. Identify Asset Values: Determine the current market value of all tangible and intangible assets.

    2. Subtract Liabilities: Deduct all outstanding liabilities from the total asset value to arrive at the net asset value.

    3. Adjust for Intangibles and Liabilities: Make necessary adjustments for items that may be overvalued or undervalued on the balance sheet.

    Example in Practice

    If a company has total assets worth ₹500 million and liabilities of ₹300 million, the net asset value would be ₹500 million – ₹300 million = ₹200 million. If the company has 10 million shares outstanding, the asset-based valuation per share would be ₹200 million / 10 million = ₹20 per share.

    Final Thoughts

    Valuation is a multifaceted process that requires careful consideration of various factors. Each method has its strengths and is suitable for different types of companies and investment goals. By mastering these techniques, you can make more informed decisions in the Indian stock market and identify potential investment opportunities.

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